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Curriculum Guidance

How the learning platform relates to a range of national and international curriculums

  • IB Diploma Geography

    The case studies, resources and activities provided in the Pathways Learning Platform will support the teaching of key global issues of our times. The Pathways of Women’s Empowerment research has been repurposed to suit the teaching of IB Diploma Geography Programme, particularly; poverty reduction, gender equality and empowerment, improvements in health and education, rights and social movements.

    The IB curriculum recommends for content to be taught through the use of appropriate examples and case studies. Our aim is to provide you with a range of high quality, academically rooted, appropriate case studies to compliment the teaching of the following sections of the syllabus:

    Part 1 - Core Theme

    Patterns and Change

    1. Populations in Transition

    Sub-Unit Gender and Change (4 hours)

    • Examine gender inequalities in culture, status, education, health, employment, empowerment, life expectancy, family size, migration and legal rights.

    2. Disparities in Wealth and Development

    Sub Unit Origin of Disparities

    • Explain disparities and inequities that occur within countries resulting from ethnicity, residence, parental education, income, employment (formal and informal) and land ownership.

    Sub Unit Disparities and Change

    • Identify and explain the changing patterns and trends of regional and global disparities of life expectancy, education and income.

    • Examine the progress made in meeting the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) in poverty reduction, education and health.

    Sub Unit Reducing Disparities

    • Discuss the different ways in which disparities can be reduced with an emphasis on trade and market access, debt relief, aid and remittances.

    • Evaluate the effectiveness of strategies designed to reduce disparities.

    Part 3 - Higher Extension - Global Interactions

    5. Sociocultural Exchanges

    Sub Unit Cultural diffusion: The Process

    • Describe cultural traits in terms of language, customs, beliefs, dress, images, music, food and technology.

    • Examine the diffusion of cultural traits resulting from the international movement of workers, tourists and commodities.

    6. Political Outcomes

    Sub Unit Loss of Sovereignty

    • Discuss the links between the diminishing effectiveness of political borders and the flow of goods, capital, labour and ideas.

    Reference: International Baccalaureate Organisation, 2011

  • AQA Geography

    Due to ongoing reforms to the national curriculum driven by the Department of Education this syllabus information is subject to change. This information was correct as of January 2013.

    These modules, case studies and resources will support the teaching and learning of the AQA Geography A level syllabus, specifically the following sections:

    Unit 3 - Contemporary Geographical Issues

    Option 5: Development and Globalisation

    • The economic, demographic, social, political and cultural changes associated with development; the development continuum.

    Option 6: Contemporary Conflicts and Challenges

    • The geographical basis of conflict
    • Nature and origin of conflict: identity (nationalism, regionalism, localism), ethnicity, culture; resources including territory; ideology.
    • Patterns of conflict: national, regional, local. Expression of conflict: non-violent, political activity, debate, terrorism, insurrection, war.
    • Conflict resolution.

    Investigative Skills:

    • Identification of aims, geographical questions and issues, and effective approaches to enquiry.
    • Identification, selection and collection of quantitative and qualitative evidence, including the use of appropriate sampling techniques, from primary sources (including fieldwork) and secondary sources.
    • Processing, presentation, analysis and interpretation of evidence.
    • Drawing conclusions and showing an awareness of the validity of conclusions.
    • Evaluation, including further research opportunities.

    4.1 Aims

    These learning materials also provide students with opportunities to:

    • Develop and apply their understanding of geographical concepts and processes to understand and interpret our changing world.
    • Develop their awareness of the complexity of interactions within and between societies, economies, cultures and environments at scales from local to global.
    • Develop as global citizens who recognise the challenges of sustainability and the implications for their own and others’ lives.
    • Improve as critical and reflective learners aware of the importance of attitudes and values, including their own.
    • Become adept in the use and application of skills and new technologies through their geographical studies both in and outside the classroom.
    • Be inspired by the world around them, and gain enjoyment and satisfaction from their geographical studies and understand their relevance.

    Reference: AQA - Alevel Geography, 2012

  • EDEXCEL Geography

    Due to ongoing reforms to the national curriculum driven by the Department of Education this syllabus information is subject to change. This information was correct as of January 2013.

    These modules, case studies and resources will support students in developing and applying their understanding of geographical concepts and processes in understanding and interpreting our changing world and support the teaching and learning of the EDEXCEL A level geography syllabus, specifically the following sections:

    Topic 2: Going Global

    Enquiry Question: What are the main groupings of nations and what differences in levels of power and wealth exist?

    • The disparities in global wealth and poverty, through broad economic and political groupings of countries (such as NICs, OPEC, LEDCs, LDCs, OECD, and trade blocs like NAFTA).

    Topic 3: Unequal Spaces

    1. Recognising Inequality

    Enquiry Question: What are unequal spaces and what causes them?

    • The idea of inequality at a variety of scales and in contrasting areas.- develop their awareness of the complexity of interactions within and between societies, economies, cultures and environments at scales from local to global.

    • The processes that lead to uneven levels of environmental quality, social opportunity, wealth (and poverty) and quality of life.- develop as global citizens who recognise the challenges of sustainability and the implications for their own and others’ lives.

    2. Inequality for Whom?:

    Enquiry Question: What impact do unequal spaces have on people?

    • Inequality can lead to social and economic exclusion and polarisation, by denying opportunities and access to services in urban and rural areas.- become adept in the use and application of skills and new technologies through their geographical studies both in and outside the classroom.

    • How inequality creates marginalised groups in a variety of ways in rural and urban areas.

    3. Managing Rural Inequalities:

    Enquiry Question: How can we manage rural inequality and improve the lives of the rural poor? How successful have particular schemes been?

    • There are serious social, economic and environmental problems and barriers creating rural inequality that need to be overcome.

    4. Managing Urban Inequalities:

    Enquiry Question: What strategies can be used to combat inequality in urban areas? How successful have particular schemes been?

    • There are social, economic and environmental problems associated with urban inequalities and key players are involved in delivering solutions.

    Unit 3 - Contested Planet

    2: The Consequences of the ‘Development Gap’.

    Enquiry Question: What are the implications of the ‘development gap’ at different scales for the world’s poorest people?

    • The development gap has social, economic, environmental and political consequences for people in the most disadvantaged countries – for example sub-Saharan Africa, women and caste divisions in India.

    • The development gap often has an ethnic and/or religious dimension such as in South Africa, Indonesia and East Timor; and can be associated with migrations, social unrest and new political movements.

    • There are positive and negative consequences for countries which are developing and reducing poverty; as development and the environment are rarely compatible unless carefully managed, for example India or China.

    3 Reducing the ‘Development Gap’.

    Enquiry Question: How might the development gap be reduced and by whom?

    • For some, the future of the development gap is a stark one, unless difficult choices are made by a range of players, many of whom have conflicting priorities.

    Option 4: The World of Cultural Diversity

    1: Defining Culture and Identifying its Value.

    Enquiry Question: What is the nature and value of culture in terms of peoples and places?

    • Definitions of culture, in terms of human cultures (ethnicities, beliefs, histories) and places (the production of cultural landscapes); the complex origins of the word ‘culture’.

    • Some cultures and landscapes are more vulnerable than others from environmental, socio-economic and political pressures.

    • The cultural diversity of people and places is valued, and protected, to different degrees by different players.

    2: The Geography of Culture

    Enquiry Question: How and why does culture vary spatially?

    • Government and other players’ attitudes, both positive and negative, towards human diversity and landscape diversity, are important in preserving diversity or moving towards cultural homogeneity.

    Reference: EDEXCEL, A level Geography, 2012

  • WJEC GCE World Development

    Due to ongoing reforms to the national curriculum driven by the Department of Education this syllabus information is subject to change. This information was correct as of January 2013.

    The Pathways Learning Platform links directly to the World Development specification which was created in response to growing concerns that students in the twenty first century should have a better understanding of their role as global citizens and their responsibilities towards global development and sustainability.

    In using the materials within this platform when teaching AS and A level specification in World Development students will be able to:

    1. Understand the relationship between development, people, poverty, and their environment
    2. Understand the nature of poverty and inequality
    3. Appreciate the importance of values and attitudes in understanding different views about development, poverty and inequality
    4. Develop skills of interpretation, evaluation and analysis
    5. Develop informed personal opinions and judgements

    In addition, this platform’s learning materials will enable students to:

    1. Use greater depth and range of knowledge to understand the evolving processes at work in development
    2. Extend their critical understanding to appreciate the complexity of interrelationships in development issues
    3. Continue to develop a rationale for personal attitudes and values
    4. Increase their competence in enquiry, interpretive and evaluative skills
    5. Encourage candidates to articulate independent, informed opinions and judgements

    Candidates must meet WJEC assessment objectives in the context of the content detailed in Section 4 of the specification, from these the following are directly related to the materials available within the Pathways Learning Platform:

    AO1

    • Recall specific facts, concepts and theories and illustrate with appropriate case studies and examples
    • Show a knowledge and critical understanding of the concepts identified in the specification, concepts, generalisations and theoretical frameworks of World Development
    • Describe, analyse and evaluate patterns and processes of change
    • Show knowledge of the inter-relationships between people and resources in areas of different levels of development
    • Demonstrate, through a multi-disciplinary approach, knowledge and some understanding of the complexity and inter-dependence of social and economic relationships locally, nationally and internationally
    • Describe differences in life styles and in standards of living and to show a historical appreciation of how they develop

    AO3

    • Select and use appropriate techniques for obtaining, observing, recording, classifying, representing, and the critical analysis, interpretation and evaluation of evidence
    • Use and analyse a range of source materials, including audio-visual materials, maps at a variety of scales, graphs and simple statistical data
    • Demonstrate an ability to suggest solutions to problems by selecting, using and communicating information, ideas and conclusions in a variety of forms

    Theme 2: Poverty and Inequality

    Key Ideas

    1. Poverty can be defined and measured in different ways
    2. Poverty and inequality is created and addressed in many different ways
    3. Particular social groups experience inequality

    Theme 3: Perspectives of Development

    Key Ideas

    1. Development is a contested concept which is evolving over time
    2. A critique of interpretations of ‘development’ helps us to understand current thinking
    3. The concept of development varies between different groups of people with different values and attitudes
    4. Development can be understood from economic, political, social and environmental perspectives
    5. Development requires participation and empowerment of individuals and communities
    6. The concept and definition of ‘sustainable development’ is a contested one

    Theme 5: Political Development

    Key Ideas

    1. World governance structures affect levels and rates of development
    2. Empowerment of all groups in society is fundamental for development
    3. Political participation is an integral part of development
    4. Development is affected by conflicts and the resolution of those conflicts
    5. National and regional governments have an important role in the development process
    6. National and local political initiatives can play an important role in some aspects of the global development process

    Theme 6: Social Development

    Key Ideas

    1. There are complex inter-relationships between population and resources which affect development
    2. Women have a significant role to play in development
    3. The education of a population is integral to its development
    4. The health of a population is integral to its development
    5. Cultural and religious diversity is part of development
    6. Migration reflects inequalities in levels of development

    Reference WJEC 2011 - http://www.wjec.co.uk/uploads/publications/6150.pdf

  • AQA Government and Politics

    Due to ongoing reforms to the national curriculum driven by the Department of Education this syllabus information is subject to change. This information was correct as of January 2013.

    AQA’s GCE Government and Politics will enable students to develop a wide range of skills including the ability to comprehend, synthesise and interpret political information; analyse and evaluate political knowledge; identify connections, similarities and differences between the areas studied; select relevant material and construct and communicate arguments clearly and coherently using appropriate political vocabulary.

    The Pathways Learning Platform supports these objectives and directly relates to the following specifications within the syllabus:

    Unit 1 – GOVP1 People, Politics and Participation

    • The nature of participation in the political process
    • The nature of representation
    • The importance of pressure groups to political communication and policy making in a democracy

    Unit 3B - GOV3B Ideologies

    • Democracy, social contract, freedom, justice, equality
    • Fraternity, class-conflict, social justice, social exclusion, freedom
    • Utopianism, communism, democratic socialism, gradualism, revisionism, social democracy
    • Hierarchy, elites, individualism, inequality
    • Organic society, nationalism, patriotism, authority, paternalism
    • Pragmatism, opposition to ideology, inclusiveness

    Unit 4B - GOV4B Political Issues: Ideologies in Action

    • Equality of opportunity
    • Race relations
    • Racism/discrimination/prejudice
    • Exclusion
    • Sexism/gender/patriarchy
    • Feminism
    • Women’s movement
    • Rights
    • Political correctness

    Reference: AQA 2013